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  1. In _____, the seminal study by Holden and Mertz evaluated the relationship between corneal edema and hydrogel lens oxygen transmissibility for daily and extended lens wear.
       a. 1980
       b. 1982
       c. 1984
       d. 1985
  2. In a 2015 article by Fonn and Sweeney, the authors assert that “sentiment has been expressed that _________________ lens materials should be routinely prescribed over traditional hydrogel lenses for daily wear.”
       a. Silicone Hydrogel
       b. Toric
       c. Ridge
       d. Soft
  3. Research shows that even _________________ contact lens wearers often don’t follow safe wearing instructions and have lifestyles that present significant challenges to safe, comfortable lens wear.
       a. Monthly
       b. Weekly
       c. Daily disposable
       d. Disposable (2-week replacement)
  4. In a 2015 study of daily disposable contact lens wearers, ______ reported sleeping overnight in their lenses.
       a. 14%
       b. 16%
       c. 18%
       d. 28%
  5. To increase the likelihood of good health, the eye should receive the highest possible levels of oxygen. One consequence of limited oxygen includes:
       a. Corneal edema
       b. Lid margin disease
       c. Dryness
       d. Meibomian gland dysfunction
  6. Brennan and Morgan asserted that all _____________ lenses induce corneal hypoxia.
       a. Silicone hydrogel
       b. Hydrogel
       c. Ridge
       d. Toric
  7. According to _________________, most values for hydrogel lenses give a false impression of their oxygen capabilities.
       a. Brennan and Morgan
       b. Cover and colleagues
       c. Sweeney
       d. Holden and Mertz
  8. Covey and colleagues studied whether subjects wearing SiHy lenses could be discriminated from non-wearing subjects. No differences were found between the two groups in any of the studied parameters with the exception of the high-Dk lens-wearing group, which had twofold more tear film debris and ________ more conjunctival staining than the nonlens-wearing subjects.
       a. 1.5-fold
       b. 2.5-fold
       c. 3.5-fold
       d. 4.5-fold
  9. In 2013, Sweeney reviewed the literature to determine whether or not silicone hydrogel lenses have eliminated corneal hypoxia and concluded that _______________ lenses have effectively eliminated hypoxia for most patients, regardless of wearing schedule.
       a. Traditional hydrogel
       b. Silicone hydrogel (SiHy)
       c. Soft
       d. Daily disposable
  10. Data from a retrospective chart review of myopic soft contact lens wearers aged 8 to 22 years were analyzed for rate of progression of myopia and associated characteristics. During observation, _____ of subjects experienced a change in soft contact lens power of -0.50 D or more.
       a. 16%
       b. 26%
       c. 36%
       d. 46%
  11. From that same review, which of the following was indicated as a significant predictor of a future increase in minus lens power:
       a. Age
       b. Ethnicity
       c. Longer time to the first increase in minus power
       d. Modality
  12. In a large, multisite (United States and Canada), single-masked study, experienced daily wear, low Dk/t, 2-week replacement soft contact lens wearers were refitted into a silicone hydrogel lens for a 2-week period. Conjunctival and limbal redness, corneal neovascularization, corneal edema, and corneal and conjunctival staining all ___________________________ from baseline.
       a. Slightly increased
       b. Increased significantly
       c. Slightly decreased
       d. Decreased significantly
  13. In that same study, silicone hydrogel lenses performed better than habitual lenses in terms of
       a. Wetness
       b. Symptoms
       c. Overall preference
       d. Comfort, symptoms, and overall preference
  14. In a study investigating the clinical performance and physiological responses in a group of successful long-term wearers of conventional hydrogel lenses when refitted with daily wear SiHy contact lenses, investigators found that ___ percent of subjects were successfully refitted into SiHy lenses.
       a. 73%
       b. 83%
       c. 93%
       d. 94%
  15. In that same study, both objective and subjective evaluations showed that bulbar and limbal hyperemia decreased _______________ in all quadrants during the study.
       a. Slightly
       b. Significantly
       c. Marginally
       d. Moderately
  16. In Part 2 of a two-party study estimating the prevalence of problems occurring with soft contact lens wearers, how many subjects were classified as “problem patients”?
       a. 110
       b. 111
       c. 112
       d. 113
  17. After being refitted with silicone hydrogel contact lenses, _____ of these “problem patients” reported better comfort.
       a. 88%
       b. 89%
       c. 90%
       d. 91%
  18. In a recent online survey, current and lapsed contact lens wearers residing in Canada, which of the following was reported as a primary reason for discontinuing contact lens wear:
       a. Dryness
       b. Cost
       c. Comfort
       d. Availability
  19. Commonly reported obstacles to SiHy fits include ______________________________.
       a. Cost
       b. Cost and allergic response
       c. Coast and parameters
       d. Cost, allergic response, and parameters
  20. A vast majority (____) of reusable fits are silicone hydrogel, presumably due to the superior material benefits.
       a. 76%
       b. 77%
       c. 78%
       d. 79%


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